top of page Kratom preparations contain several phytochemicals in varying ratios rendering their proper pharmacological evaluation difficult. In general, the effects of kratom in humans are dose-dependent: small doses produce ‘cocaine-like’ stimulation while larger dosages cause ‘morphine-like’ sedative-narcotic effects. (1988), ‘Ethnopharmacology of kratom and the Mitragyna alkaloids’, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 23, pp. After taking a few grams of dried leaves, the invigorating effects and euphoria are felt within 10 minutes and last for one to one and a half hours. Molecular formula: C Molecular weight: 398.50 g/mol Mitragynine is the most abundant alkaloid in the leaves.
Stable, paste-like extracts and dark brown kratom resin can be made by partially or fully boiling down the water from aqueous kratom leaf suspensions. (1963), ‘Structure of mitragynine (9-methoxycorynantheidine)’, Chemistry and Industry, (Issue 14), p.
Tinctures and capsules, filled with powdered kratom, are also available.
In animal studies, the antinociceptive and cough-suppressant effects of mitragynine were comparable to those of codeine.
In mice, 7-hydroxymitragynine was several times more potent analgesic than morphine even upon oral administration. Mice chronically treated with 7-hydroxymitragynine developed tolerance, cross-tolerance to morphine and withdrawal signs that could be precipitated by naloxone administration. The withdrawal symptoms in humans are relatively mild and typically diminish within a week.
The systematic (Chemical Abstract) name is (αE,2S,3S,12b S)-3-ethyl-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12b-octahydro-8-methoxy-α-(methoxymethylene)-indolo[2,3-a]quinolizine-2-acetic acid methyl ester (CAS Registry Number: 4098-40-2). (2009), ‘Phytochemical characterization of the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa grown in USA’, Natural Products Communications, Volume 4, pp.